How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.
Students writing in a second language are also faced with social and cognitive challenges related to second language acquisition. L1 models of writing instruction and research on composing processes have been the theoretical basis for using the process approach in L2 writing pedagogy.
However, language proficiency and competence underlies the ability to write in the L2 in a fundamental way. Therefore, L2 writing instructors should take into account both strategy development and language skill development when working with students.
This paper explores error in writing in relation to particular aspects of second language acquisition and theories of the writing process in L1 and L2. It can be argued that a focus on the writing process as a pedagogical tool is only appropriate for second language learners if attention is given to linguistic development, and if learners are able to get sufficient and effective feedback with regard to their errors in writing.
Introduction The ability to write well is not a naturally acquired skill; it is usually learned or culturally transmitted as a set of practices in formal instructional settings or other environments.
Writing skills must be practiced and learned through experience. Writing also involves composing, which implies the ability either to tell or retell pieces of information in the form of narratives or description, or to transform information into new texts, as in expository or argumentative writing.
Perhaps it is best viewed as a continuum of activities that range from the more mechanical or formal aspects of "writing down" on the one end, to the more complex act of composing on the other end Omaggio Hadley, It is undoubtedly the act of composing, though, which can create problems for students, especially for those writing in a second language L2 in academic contexts.
Formulating new ideas can be difficult because it involves transforming or reworking information, which is much more complex than writing as telling. Indeed, academic writing requires conscious effort and practice in composing, developing, and analyzing ideas.
Compared to students writing in their native language L1however, students writing in their L2 have to also acquire proficiency in the use of the language as well as writing strategies, techniques and skills. They might also have to deal with instructors and later, faculty members, who may or may not get beyond their language problems when evaluating their work.
Although a certain amount of consciousness-raising on the part of the readers may be warranted, students want to write close to error-free texts and they enter language courses with the expectations of becoming more proficient writers in the L2.
I argue that the process approach to instruction, with its emphasis on the writing process, meaning making, invention and multiple drafts Raimes,is only appropriate for second language learners if they are both able to get sufficient feedback with regard to their errors in writing, and are proficient enough in the language to implement revision strategies.
A brief survey of the nature of L2 writing and L1 models of the writing process illustrates why it is difficult to apply L1 research to a model for second language writing. Further, certain social and cognitive factors related to second language acquisition show that strategies involved in the language learning process also affect L2 writing.
With a discussion of these factors, fundamental questions about error in writing and L2 proficiency are raised. It should then become apparent that the process approach to writing instruction can only be effective if these two components are taken into consideration.
However, their purposes for writing are sometimes not the kind valued by Western academic communities. In addition, the culture-specific nature of schemata--abstract mental structures representing our knowledge of things, events, and situations--can lead to difficulties when students write texts in L2.
Knowing how to write a "summary" or "analysis" in Mandarin or Spanish does not necessarily mean that students will be able to do these things in English Kern, As a result, any appropriate instruction must take into consideration the influence from various educational, social, and cultural experiences that students have in their native language.
In addition to instructional and cultural factors, L2 writers have varying commands of the target language, which affect the way structural errors are treated from both social and cognitive points of view.How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching [Susan A.
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Teachers should aim to supplement their current writing practices and curricula with a mix of the aforementioned evidence-based writing practices.
The optimal mixture of practices should be tailored to best meet the writing needs of the class, as well as the needs of individual students. The Journal of Writing Research is an open access journal that publishes high quality papers covering the broad spectrum of writing research.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study.
An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. In this article written for Colorín Colorado, Bright Ideas author Kristina Robertson offers an overview of WIDA's new Essential Actions handbook and shares a step-by-step process for using this tool as part of a professional learning community focused on meeting ELLs' academic language needs.
Qualities of strong writing instruction. In order for teachers to support all students' writing ability development, certain qualities of the writing classroom must be present.