This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which animals are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives when possible. Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch and since, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase, raising serious ethical and scientific issues.
Penicillin InAlexander Fleming noticed that staphylococcus bacilli would not grow on a culture medium accidentally contaminated with a mold, Pencillim notatum.
But test tube experiments failed to show the antibiotic properties he expected. Ten years later, Oxford chemists Ernest Chain and Howard Florey were working on antibacterial substances. But when Chain injected two mice with it, they remained healthy. Delighted by this apparent lack of toxicity, Florey then decided to give his full attention to penicillin.
The animal experiment Only by was enough penicillin available for testing. Eight mice were infected with a deadly dose of million streptococci bacteria.
One hour later, four of them were injected with penicillin. These survived but the untreated ones died. The amount of penicillin needed to treat a human is 3, times greater than for a mouse. Without these early whole animal proofs on toxicity and effectiveness, penicillin would not have been developed further.
It revolutionized the ability to treat bacterial infections, which were a major cause of death. This simple animal test led directly to the saving of literally millions of lives, both human and animal.
Blood transfusion The first successful blood transfusion was performed on a dog by Richard Lower in and perfected in dogs by Clotting was prevented by the addition of sodium citrate and citrated blood was shown to be safe for transfusion to dogs in The animal experiment In Richard Lewisohn determined the maximum safe concentration of citrate that could be used when transfusing blood into a dog.
The following year two doctors, Peyton Rous and Joseph Turner at the Rockefeller Institute, New York showed that blood treated with citrate and glucose could be stored for as long as three weeks in rabbits and safely transfused back into the animals.
Later work established longer storage times for human blood. Much blood transfusion research is done in test tubes, but animals were used to establish the safety of citrated blood.
Blood transfusion is used after injury and surgery and to treat cancers and anaemia. Open heart surgery would not be possible without it. Tuberculosis A century ago, TB was a common cause of death.
Inthere werecases in Britain. It was also endemic among farm animals. Robert Koch isolated and identified the bacteria responsible, showing that it reproduced the disease when introduced into experimental animals.
The animal experiment InSelman Waksman and Albert Schatz, soil microbiologists working at Rutgers University, New Jersey, injected streptomycin, the product of a soil bacteria isolated in a sick chicken, into guinea pigs infected with TB.
It completely suppressed the TB without harming the guinea pigs. Antibiotics need to be trialled in living organisms as there is no way of knowing whether they will penetrate tissue at the site of an infection.
TB is unusual in having multiple infection sites.Sep 07, · Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch and since, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase, raising .
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Proponents of animal testing say that it has enabled the development of many life-saving treatments for both humans and animals, that there is no alternative method for researching a complete living organism, and that strict regulations prevent the mistreatment of animals in laboratories.
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